Approximately one fifth of the electricity generated throughout the world is used by illumination systems. This high power consumption could be halved if the use of solid-state lighting technology, the most widespread example of which is the LED (light emitting diodes), were increased. These small devices are already everywhere, from traffic lights to neon signs and the screens of electronic devices.
Despite its high efficiency, light weight and durability, until recently LEDs were not suitable for some applications such as lighting a room because of its poor quantity and quality of light production; this caused LEDs to lose ground versus fluorescent, halogen and the traditional incandescent bulbs. This rivalry lives on today, despite the fact that LED-based light sources are more than three times more energy efficient than those available in 2005.
To ensure that the LEDS become increasingly competitive, the young nanotechnologist Sedat Nizamoglu from Turkey has been working for many years on a new type of diode with integrated semi-conductor Nano-crystals which, in addition to offering high quality light, do so with very high levels of efficiency. The heart of an LED device is its chip, a tiny sheet of semiconductor materials which convert the electricity into photon emissions due to a phenomenon called electroluminescence. For example, Nizamoglu used indium gallium nitride for some of his LED chips which generates a blue electroluminescence with the passage of electrical current.
Subsequently, the electroluminescence stimulates something called the color conversion layer. In the LEDs that currently dominate the market, this layer is made of phosphorus, a luminescent element which causes the eager protons to emit light. The total emission of electroluminescence and photoluminescence gives rise to the white light the LED gives off. Nizamuglu’s proposal consists of achieving the greater, better quality light emissions through the replacement of color conversion layers made of phosphorus with those made of Nano-crystals.